"If the system is chaotic/random then agent behaviour is
deterministic, which means I can use statistical instruments. If it’s constrained,
then the constraint structure allows predictability/repeatability. Strong
constraints produce linear causality; weaker constraints provide repeatability
that may be non-linear. However the moment you get the phase shift into a
co-evolutionary relationship between agents and system then there is no repeatability
except by accident. In that context there is no meaningful causality, and
any causality is only retrospectively coherent."